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Vol 18, No 2 (2019)

Articles

THE ORGANIZATIONAL LEGAL ASPECTS OF QUALITY OF PALLIATIVE CARE OF PATIENTS OF ONCOLOGIC PROFILE AT THE ACTUAL STAGE

Ertel L.A.

Abstract

The article considers current regulatory framework governing provision of cancer palliative care and establishing the patients' rights. The main problems of implementation of legislation in this area are established, namely: problems of medical care quality, problems of legal regulation of voluntary informed consent, problems of implementation of right of patient to palliative care. It is noted that system of organizational and legal support of medical and social expertise in relation to oncologic patients in need of palliative care requires modernization, especially in terms of quality and availability of services provided by medical and social expertise institutions. The problem of personnel training for implementing procedure for interaction of medical organizations, social services is considered. The need for adjusting training programs to form necessary competencies in implementation of the Federal educational standards targeted to training qualified specialists to provide palliative care is emphasized.
Sociology of Medicine. 2019;18(2):68-73
pages 68-73 views

THE ACCESSIBILITY OF NEPHROLOGICAL CARE AS A PREDICTOR OF CHRONIC DISEASES OF KIDNEYS

Petrov G.S., Krom I.L., Erugina M.V.

Abstract

The chronic kidney diseases are recognized as one of leading problems of modern health care due to high prevalence and unfavorable prognosis. The article considers modern classification of predictors of chronic kidney diseases. It is emphasized that none of known modern classifications of chronic kidney diseases predictors don't take into account medical care accessibility to patients in disease condition as a predictor. It is proposed to consider accessibility of medical care from perspective of macrolevel social factors that represent the most widely background health predictors. The original typology of accessibility of nephrological medical care to patients with chronic kidney disease is proposed, which is implemented through prevention and/or minimization of predictors of the onset of chronic kidney diseases, management of disease progression and nephroprotection modifiable predictors, and renal replacement therapy for patients with chronic kidney disease. The one of reasons of limited accessibility of renal replacement therapy for patients with chronic kidney diseases is transportation problem that is solved in the Saratov region through organization of transportation of dialysis patients and development of domiciliary methods of renal replacement therapy. The restriction of medical care accessibility to patients is considered as an obligatory predictor of the onset, progression and unfavorable prognosis of chronic kidney diseases.
Sociology of Medicine. 2019;18(2):74-77
pages 74-77 views

THE CONSTRUCTIBLE IMAGE OF ORPHAN CHILD IN IDEAS OF MOSCOVITES

Prisyazhnaya N.V.

Abstract

The article considers the ideas of Muscovites concerning issues of social orphanhood, th condition in which child is left without any actual parental care. According to the results of sociological survey the obvious family problems are mostly associated with parents' dependence on psychoactive substances, while condition of "hidden" social orphanhood is developed as a result of high employment or parents' centering on their own interests. At the same time, the ideas expressed by respondents concerning image of socially orphan child had negative connotation that is reflected in the constructible image of orphan child of any gender aged from 7 to 10 years, unkempt and lagging in physical development, demonstrating range of negative emotions (sadness, anger, fear, guilt) and maladaptive behavior but not having any characteristics (disorders) of health.
Sociology of Medicine. 2019;18(2):78-84
pages 78-84 views

THE REGIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MODERN NARCOTIZATION IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Shulgina E.V.

Abstract

The problem of drug abuse in various territories of the Russian Federation continues to be critically important. The availability of large administrative territory uniting numerous regions with diverse characteristics results in polarization of drug abuse indicators. The purpose of study is to analyze regional characteristics of drug abuse in the Russian Federation to develop general scope of drug abuse spreading to propose effective anti-drug policy meeting challenges of current drug abuse situation. The regions of the Russian Federation that suffer, according to official statistics data, maximum and minimum indices of drug abuse are considered. The results of analysis of current medical statistics (indices of number of people with first-time established drug dependence syndrome, as well as number of people with first-time established diagnosis of "harmful drug abuse", number of cases of acute drug intoxication, etc.), law enforcement statistics (indices of number of established crimes related to illicit drug trafficking, structure of the most common drugs, etc.). The analysis of related publications, as well as research data from sociological studies of deviant behavior implemented by the Federal Center of Theoretical and Applied Sociology of the Russian Academy of Sciences was also implemented. The conclusions are presented concerning most risky regional characteristics in drug abuse sphere, as well as regional particularities that function as a kind of protective factors against the drug abuse prevalence.
Sociology of Medicine. 2019;18(2):85-91
pages 85-91 views

THE FACTORS IMPACTING ATTITUDE OF MEDICAL COMMUNITY TO GENETIC RESEARCH AND MEDICAL CARE OF CHILDREN WITH INHERENT IMMUNITY ERRORS

Voronina L.I., Zaitseva E.V., Tuzankina I.A.

Abstract

The purpose of the study is to investigate factors influencing medical community's attitude to genetic research and medical care of children with inherent immunity errors and to develop recommendations for representatives of medical community (immunologists and allergists). Today, genetic research technologies and medical care provided on the basis of diagnostics are not considered as elements of health care management system in the Russian Federation. The factors (legal, ethical, organizational, etc.) affecting genetic research and medical care of patients with congenital immune errors are analyzed. The results of the expert survey carried out in sampling of allergists and immunologists of the Sverdlovsk Oblast are presented. Based on the results of survey, recommendations have been proposed for developing and implementing genetic research technologies and medical care. The conclusions are made concerning necessity of minimization of medical and social risks through introduction and regulatory consolidation of genetic research technologies and consulting technologies based on diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency; joining administrative and professional efforts in professional training in the field of genetic counseling, including other specialists in health care.
Sociology of Medicine. 2019;18(2):92-97
pages 92-97 views

THE MEDICAL SOCIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF QUALITY OF LIFE OF PATIENTS WITH SENSORINEURAL DEAFNESS

Prisyazhnaya N.V., Zhuravlev A.S., Viatkina N.Y.

Abstract

Health is the fundamental value of every individual, and its violations, especially those that are burdened by risk of disability, are the key factor of reducing quality of life of individual. The extent of prevalence of hearing impairment in population, accompanied by multiple problems in organization of social, professional and family life of patients, determines high social importance of the issue. The article presents results of medical and sociological study (focus group) of quality of life of patients with diagnosis "sensorineural hearing loss" (as exemplified by patients of Moscow multi-field hospital). The onset of disease, in addition to problems of physical well-being (pain, dizziness, disorientation, etc.) causes person sensorineural hearing loss reducing quality of life, and, above all, resulting in multiple communication problems at the level of everyday personal and social interaction. Despite the fact that the study participants believe that there is no negative attitude and stigma towards people with hearing loss among Russians, the respondents noted prevalence of general intolerant attitude towards disabled people. The widespread of sensorineural hearing loss among able-bodied population is accompanied with low level of public awareness of principles of prevention of hearing loss, the need for timely corresponding treatment, as well as peculiarities of interaction with people suffering hearing loss. The majority of respondents indicate high ability to work with adequate treatment and selection of hearing device and make adjustments to organization, and the support of family and working community.
Sociology of Medicine. 2019;18(2):98-105
pages 98-105 views

THE QUALITY OF LIFE OF PATIENTS AFTER TOTAL ENDOPROSTHESIS REPLACEMENT OF HIP JOINT: PUBLICATIONS REVIEW

Khudoshin N.A., Abaeva O.P., Romanov S.V.

Abstract

The main and generally accepted method of surgical treatment of arthrosis of hip joint is considered to be total arthroplasty. As a result, patient gets rid of pain, motor activity increases, more mobility and sociability are added. The surgical approaches (types of implants, operative approaches) and rehabilitation approaches (centers of specialized rehabilitation, outpatient rehabilitation clinics) are being improved. However, despite positive dynamics of improving quality of life, there is a group of patients of able-bodied age who have no satisfaction with surgery results.
Sociology of Medicine. 2019;18(2):106-109
pages 106-109 views

THE CATEGORIES OF HEALTH AND DISEASE IN EVOLUTION OF PARADIGMS OF MEDICINE

Panova E.I.

Abstract

The article presents results of analysis of concepts “health” and “disease” to identify patterns of changes in their meaning and content which resulted into increasing of technologization of modern medicine. Every of considered ways of interpreting concept of “disease” contains certain image of human and one's attitude to internal (natural) and external (natural, social) environment and determines the degree of necessity, direction and character of impact on human body. The modifications of ways these categories are interpreted reflect evolutionary transition of successive changes in three paradigms of medicine: biocentric - sociocentric - technocentric. There is no clear demarcation between pathological and normal states of organism in the biocentric paradigm. The medical standard is identical to biological one; its criterion is viability. In the sociocentric paradigm, social factors of human activity dominate natural ones. The concept of “disease” acquires negative meaning and begins to be defined as “failure”, violation of adaptation of human organism. The natural consequence of this approach is increasing of spectrum and intensity of medical intervention: medical technologies begin to be applied to eliminate biologically normal conditions of patient's body. The main feature of technocentric paradigm is its constructivist character: biomedicine seeks to create new states of human body and psyche that do not exist in the nature. Understanding health as “well-being” leads to relativity of medical standards that becomes depended on constantly changing individual standards.
Sociology of Medicine. 2019;18(2):110-117
pages 110-117 views

THE PARTICULAR ASPECTS OF SCIENTIFIC EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITY OF LECTURER OF UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL PROFILE

Koychueva S.M.

Abstract

The research activity of medical University lecturers is inextricably linked with pedagogical and medical activities. At the same time, more and more attention has been paid to scientific component of activities of lecturing staff. The article presents the results of sociological survey of lecturing staff of the medical University concerning various aspects of their scientific activities. It is established that younger generation of medical University lecturers lose interest in scientific activities due to lacking of financial and moral incentives. Another reason of low research activity of lecturers is poor knowledge of foreign languages.
Sociology of Medicine. 2019;18(2):118-121
pages 118-121 views

THE PERCEPTION OF OUTCOMES OF HEALTH CARE MODERNIZATION BY MEDICAL SPECIALISTS

Prisyazhnaya N.V., Koriagin M.O.

Abstract

The social institute of medicine, which has been developing steadily throughout the existence of mankind, covers not only clinical aspects of health, but also socio-economic, cultural, organizational and other components of population health protection. Nowadays, at the "digitalization" stage of society development, health care system is being rebuilt on the basis actual requirements. The condition of the "catching-up" development of industry is implementation of modernization measures targeted to updating material and technical components of health care system, as well as expansion of skills of medical personnel with modern medical equipment and programs. The article presents the results of medical and sociological study (pilot survey) of peculiarities of perception of results of modernization of health care system by medical specialists (as exemplified by the personnel of Krasnogorsk multi-field hospital). The most medical specialists working with equipment received under the state program of modernization of the health care perceived modernization positively (especially personnel working in medicine more than ten years) and believe that measures applied contributed into improving quality of medical care of patients. However, in order to increase efficiency of application of new medical equipment, it is necessary to include into health care modernization program position of mandatory training of medical staff.
Sociology of Medicine. 2019;18(2):122-127
pages 122-127 views

SOCIOLOGY OF MEDICINE: TRENDS AND VECTORS OF DEVELOPMENT

Pavlov S.V., Abaeva O.P.
Sociology of Medicine. 2019;18(2):128-128
pages 128-128 views

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